Lithium 7 Nucleus
Postulates, Principles and Rules Of
The Lattice Nested Hydreno Atomic Model
(A 1/5th Sampling Of Approximately 200)
NOTE: Many critical and sensitive details have been purposely omitted in this "condensed" sample of the postulates, principles and rules. This is not meant to be a puzzle for solving. It is only intended to tickle your curiousity and provide an general idea of the basic concepts. To get the whole story with more detailed explanations, buy the book like lots of other people. Life is too short, already. This monumental discovery may very well go down in history - extraordinary information available nowhere else on the planet.
WARNING: Despite the radical implications of many of these assertions, the majority are actually based on well established science and compelling experiments reported in the peer reviewed literature. Nonetheless, cherished dogmas and esoteric "pet theories" are challenged and replaced with pragmatic realism and logic. The end result of this exercise may very well be a massive Scientific Reformation of unprecedented proportions. Closed minded, entrenched thinkers comfortable with their superficial understanding of all things natural are advised not to continue.
Concerning The Vacuum And Its Energy:
1) The primordial energy of the Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations of space is conjectured to be the root of all material existence. Empty space is in fact filled with - possibly composed of - the ubiquitous, isotropic energy of the Zero-Point Field (ZPF), which theoretically ranges up to the Planck frequency of 1043 Hz, with a wavelength approaching 10-35 m. The ZPF of free space has the highest entropy and lowest enthalpy of any form of energy. The “Dark matter” proposed by Cosmologists, should more appropriately be referred to as “Dark energy”, having a virtual (non-material) mass.
2) This largely unobservable Zero-Point Energy (ZPE) interacts with, and sustains all matter on a continuous basis through a combination of brute force, harmonic resonance and interference interactions, not so different from the discreet interactions of sound waves in music theory. The absolute, dynamic radiation/photon pressure of the vacuum exceeds 1020 kPa by a wide margin based on a simple extrapolation of the Casimir effect to the subatomic scale. Consequently, there are no closed systems in the Universe; everything interacts through the ZPF (a well established fact of Quantum Field theory).
3) Forces can only exist between two or more fundamental particles of matter or between individual fundamental particles and the organized (coherent) energy of space. Forces do not exist in the incoherent (random) energy of space - only fields of energy. Force is therefore inseparable from the concepts matter and mass according to Newton’s equation, F=ma. However, matter and mass are not the same thing. All forces are a manifestation of the interaction of net radiation pressure of the organized ZPF and the energy vortex that constitutes the fundamental particles of matter.
4) All forces therefore involve a continuous input of energy from the local vacuum flux regardless of whether motion results or not. Despite its practical use in closed system engineering applications, the work function, W=Fd, is actually a gross simplification based on a superficial perspective which disregards the reality of the energetic vacuum. The work function is only valid when the material system is in dynamic equilibrium with the ZPF. It must be realized that all material systems have sustaining forces and consequently require continuous energy flow. This energy flow can be tapped for useful purposes.
5) Sustaining energy (Es or SE) is for distinction, set apart from the conventional notions of Potential or Kinetic energy of a material system in that it and does not entail any apparent displacement term such as Ep = mgh. It generally remains undetected as a coherent flow of ZPE in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the material system. Sustaining Energy is a time related energy, expressed as Es = QFt, where Q is a system specific constant with space-time units. Sustaining power is then simply, Ps= Es/t = QF.
Concerning Electrons & Positrons:
1) The Positron and the mirror image, counter rotating, oppositely charged Negatron (Electron) are the fundamental “particles” of all matter, and are essentially just organized energy in a standing wave vortex, (analagous to a whirlpool in a stream) created from and continually sustained by the Zero-Point Energy flux of the vacuum. The composite standing wave is evidently comprised of radial, spherical and time harmonic functions, which together produce a discreet spherical force-field, which provides the illusion of solidity and bulk volume of all matter.
2) The superposition of these three wave functions creates an orbiting zone of charge density, which produces the magnetic field of the electron and positron. The fundamental orbital frequency of the zone of superposition is the inherent Compton frequency of a stationary electron. The Compton frequency of the electron in motion, superimposed on the ZPF spectrum, produces a Doppler induced beat frequency that precisely corresponds to the de Broglie wavelength. Electrons and positrons annihilate when their oppositely rotating energy vortices interact in destructive interference producing a gamma ray pulse/photon of discrete frequency.
3) The composite standing wave of the electron can be changed to higher and lower, quantized energy states without observable radiation, permissible according to the harmonic relation 2pre = nl (re, nominal electron radius). This ocurrs as a result of interactions with resonant frequencies of the ubiquitous ZPF radiation; interference frequencies from other orbital electrons; excitation from incident photons/radiations; and the degree of ZPF shadowing inherent to its environment.
4) Electrons and to a lesser extent positrons, can exist in five different basic states ranging from the smallest inter-nucleon state from which the nucleons are constructed, here referred to as the negatron and positron, to the plane wave state electron resulting from the continuous expansion of a free electron. The ratio of cross sectional area of the orbital electron compared to the nuclear state negatron is consequently about 106 with a volumetric ratio approaching 109.
Concerning The Nucleons:
1) The proton is considered to be a composite particle with a geometric shape approximating a sphere having a positron center, composed of x negatrons and x positrons bound in a square planar lattice arrangement so as to provide stronger coulomb attraction between adjacent, opposite charges than the repulsion between diagonal like charges. The nominal diameter of the proton is equivalent to 15 positrons and negatrons.
2) The neutron has one additional electron, which occupies a position that is mostly outside the envelope of the proton providing significantly greater exposure to the quantum vacuum flux in its protruded position. The nucleons are very likely, much larger than the presently accepted dimension of 10-15m, probably closer to 10-12 m. The intensity of the mutual coulomb repulsion of the protons within the nucleus is consequently much less than presently thought, in accordance with the typical 1/r2 relation of an electric field radiating from a point charge.
3) The neutron defining electron can only remain in its small inter nucleon state, provided it is reasonable well shielded by other nucleons. The neutron is in effect a fully condensed Hydreno composed of a proton plus its electron orbital shell, in a fully collapsed, zero quantum state, such that neutrality results for the entire assembly with localized charge asymmetry.
4) Observed mass defects of the elements are due to slight variations in the mass of the nucleons as a function of the structure of the nucleus. For instance a neutron at the center of the nucleus will have a marginally lower Insitu Mass than a peripheral neutron even though they have exactly the same “material” structure.
Concerning The Nucleus:
1) The nuclear core is composed entirely of neutrons arranged in the closest packing tetrahedral and pyramidal lattice arrangement practically attainable through square planar or trigonal nuclear bonds to produce a variety of platonic polyhedrons. Trigonal bonding is most prevalent because it is more stable and space efficient. The center of the nucleus can be either space centered or neutron centered. The points and facets of the neutron core geometry are the major contributors to valence and observed bond angles in the atom.
2) The Strong force is an ultra-close range Casimir effect that literally holds the nucleus together from the outside through the brute radiation pressure of the incident ZPF estimated to exceed 1020 Pa (1015 atm). The nucleus is not held together by internal attraction by some mysterious gluon particle. The gluon is just crazy glue for bad nuclear physics and solves nothing. The individual facets of the nucleons provide a secure contact interface between bonded nucleons contributing to bond strength, lattice stability and semi-rigidity.
3) The upward bound on nuclear diameter is limited to a large extent by a simple surface area (r2) to volume (r3) ratio, such that the coulomb repulsion is a function of nuclear volume and the sustaining radiation pressure of the vacuum is primarily a function of interactions at the nuclear surface. It is therefore not surprising that stable, generally spherical nuclei, do not exist beyond a neutron to proton ratio of ~1.6. At such a ratio the accumulated internal coulomb repulsion, and the external impelling ZPF pressure approach equilibrium.
4) The void of nuclear stability between Bi83 and Th90 can be accounted for due to these multiple considerations. Only highly spherical and symmetric geometries are permissible as the size of the nucleus approaches the upward bound, barring the majority of more acute angular geometries. This causes the observed void of stability as the only remaining, highly spherical geometries approach completion, through an unstable transition region requiring the addition of numerous nucleons.
Concerning Nuclear Reactions And Decay:
1) The nature, cause and sequence of nuclear decay and its associated radiations are predictable based primarily on the geometry of the nucleus and its interactions with the ZPF of the vacuum. Beta particles result from the emission of a nuclear state negatron or positron resulting in the conversion of a nucleon. Electron capture occurs as a result of hydreno collapse to its fully bound state forming the negatron/proton pair of the neutron. The energy of the collapsed orbital shell electron is emitted.
2) Low Energy induced fusion can occur when the hydrenos occupying the mating faces between the fusing nuclei collapse to zero quantum energy states forming neutrons due to atomic scale Casimir forces. These forces are the result of mutual ZPF shadowing and the inward directed radiation pressure of ZPE coherence. If the fusion interface hydrenos do not collapse completely, a composite nucleus comprised of two distinct, but indiscernible nuclei may be formed. Diatomic oxygen for instance may collapse along the bond interface producing a single atom of organic sulfur.
3) Cold fission can occur when the nucleus is sheared along a fractal plane of the neutron lattice core without disruption of the individual nucleons along the fracture. The resulting fission fragments then rapidly regroup their nucleons to form stable elements without release of observable nuclear radiations. The excess neutrons are prompt converted to hydrenos as the fission fragments separate, exposing the core neutrons to the full energy of the ZPF. There is in fact, no energy/matter conversion occurring in Low Energy Induced fusion and Cold fission reactions -- only in thermonuclear reactions.
4) Thermonuclear fission results from electron-positron annihilations on a massive scale, within individual nucleons producing a powerful gamma burst and radioactive daughter products as a result of the violent disruptive explosion of the nucleus, which rips through the generally spherical nuclear lattice in adhoc fashion. This leaves ragged asymmetric fragments that emit quantized radiations as they gradually transition to stable end products, through the emission of particles, nucleon conversions and nuclear transitions. Energy yields from thermonuclear reactions are not simply due to the separation or joining of nucleons.
Concerning The Atom:
1) The Hydreno is the building block of all atoms and is essentially the same as the hydrogen atom in that it is composed of a proton and its associated spherical standing wave electron "shell" at various fractionally quantized, harmonic energy levels. The standing wave orbital electron simply attaches itself by coulomb attraction and impelling ZPF radiation to one proton on the surface of the nucleus forming a dynamic force field shell. This electron, proton pairing constitutes the Hydreno.
2) The orbital electron is generally much larger than its paired proton with a highly dispersed orbiting charge density that spends most of its time away from the proton. The teardrop shape typical of the p, d and f orbital subshells described by the Schrodinger wave equations, is a good approximation of the actual shape of the force field. The electrons standing wave force field is free to extend far from the nucleus to provide the normal volume of the atom and the illusion of the bulk solidity of matter.
3) The K, L, M, N, O, P and Q electron shells of the periodic table correspond to the quantum energy states of the nested hydrenos. The quantized energy level within the subshells of particular shell can however vary to some extent within harmonic constraints. For brevity it should again be emphasized that electrons in this view do not “orbit” the entire nucleus. They remain directly associated with a singular proton on the surface of the nucleus.
4) The escalating number of orbital electrons in each shell, from K to Q is determined by radial bisections of the subshells, of the underlying shell. For instance, bisections of the subshells of the L shell give rise to the (2n2) 18 s, p and d subshells of the M shell, topping out with a population of 32 electrons, limited by excessive electron crowding. The s, p, d, f, h orbital subshells of conventional chemistry largely correspond to real geometric orientations and quantum energy states of the electrons within each shell (K to Q) determined by the nested position of the high energy hydrenos on the neutron lattice core.
5) The outer valence shell responsible for bonding is always restricted to a maximum of eight subshells corresponding to the radially symmetric orientation of the corners of a cube. Mutual shadowing of the high-energy hydrenos and the resulting spectral shift and attenuation of the local vacuum flux evidently prevents anymore than 8 electrons in the outer valence shell.
Concerning Atomic Bonding and Chemistry:
1) Ultimately the atoms of all materials are held together by very close range Casimir forces, which are provided by the net ZPF radiation pressure, with the individual atoms acting as minute conductive plates. The structure Crystalline materials such as metals, diamond, and mineral compounds have regular geometric atomic shapes directly attributable to the structure of the nucleus conducive to packing in regular self-organizing lattice structures. Self-organization is largely provided by the atomic polarity.
2) The chemistry, valence and bond angles of the elements are fundamentally determined and indirectly indicative of the structure of the nucleus and are therefore predictable to a large extent. Similarly, the structure of the nucleus can be deduced to some extent from the known electron configuration. Peripheral neutrons have a strong bearing on the valence and observed bond angles of the atom. Bohr’s assertion that the nucleus has little significance to the chemistry of the atom is evidently incorrect.
3) Diatomic bonds in elements such as H2, O2, N2, and Cl2 having a negative valence, bond by covering each other’s vacant outer valence electron orbital sites. These vacant sites are characterized by a depression on the surface of the atom forming a saddle into which the mating atom fits with a right angle orientation (except hydrogen). Orientation results from the polarity of the asymmetric distribution of the hydrenos in the individual atoms. Bond strength is provided primarily by the net pressure of the impelling radiation of the ZPF, not “sharing” of electrons.
4) Covalent bonding between atoms is determined by a literal peg and hole match between the unoccupied hydreno sites of the moderately full outer valance orbital and the surplus hydrenos of the moderately empty valence orbital ideally having corresponding orbital electron energy surplus and deficiency. Inert elements have neither a surplus of valence orbital hydrenos that may be thought of as pegs nor orbital gaps as holes in which to receive a hydreno.
5) Ionic bonding occurs when the bond site (hole) of the receiving atom has a much greater affinity for the electron than the hydreno of the atom from which it is taken. This acute difference in electron affinity results in the transfer of the electron, which is pulled from its proton anchor in the nucleus of the donor atom and deposited in the vacant orbital site on the surface of the receptor atom. The transfer of the electron effectively forms two ions that bond by coulomb attraction, which again is fundamentally an impelling force from the ZPF radiation.
Concerning Bulk Matter:
1) Bulk matter is considered almost transparent to the vast majority of the ZPE spectrum aside from minor localized effects such as gravity, inertia and atomic and molecular bonding. The properties of bulk matter are directly attributable the combined attributes of its atomic and nuclear structure based in the energetic vacuum of space. Fundamentally, bulk matter (like nuclear and atomic matter) is held together by the greatly diminished, net impelling radiation pressure of the ZPF primarily acting at the molecular and macro scale, such that the individual atoms and molecules constitute microscopic Casimir plates.
2) Amorphous solids are generally composed of complex molecular arrangements with a high degree of molecular scale roughness and irregularities conducive to loose packing, entanglement and intertwining of the individual molecules with large inter atomic and molecular void spaces providing low bulk densities. Amorphous solids are ultimately held together by the impelling ZPF radiation, acting primarily at the molecular and macroscopic scale, above the atomic scale.
3) Pure elemental fluids posses irregular or near spherical atomic geometry not conducive to stable, regular packing and/or extremely weak atomic polarity that cannot promote self organization of a solid crystal structure. Melting of crystaline solids including metals occurs when too much inter-atomic movement exists to permit effective bonding between the facets of the individual atoms. Fluids are therefore predominately molecular or mixtures of atoms and compounds of irregular collective geometry that cannot be easily “frozen” as solids with strong inter-atomic bonding.
4) The mechanical properties of bulk matter, such as strength, stiffness, elasticity, malleability, density and smoothness are primarily rooted in the macro, molecular and atomic level matter-vacuum interactions, which are in turn, rooted in the geometry of the nucleus. For instance the strength and density of metals are generally higher than other materials due to closely packed and highly regular atomic geometry, involving well defined facets and atomic polarity. Stressing a material within its elastic limit distorts the bonding electron force-field shell, altering its interaction with the ZPF, but without any actual displacement of the atomic facet bonds allowing the material to return to its relaxed state.
5) The intrinsic properties of matter such as enthalpy, resistance, conductivity, reflectivity, refraction, color, and a myriad of other properties, can also be accounted for within the LNH model. For instance, conductivity results from a high-energy valence electron that is easily displaced from its proton anchor in the nucleus, allowing it to move in halting fashion, within the interstitial spaces of the metal lattice. New EMP devices actually cause these free electrons to jump to a high-energy state, effectively locking them in the lattice, abruptly stopping current flow in circuits.
Some Astrophysical Implications:
1) The intended scope of our conceptual inquiry into the nature of the atom and matter has now extended through six levels of organization, from the vacuum, to bulk matter. It should go without saying, that many of the aforementioned postulates and principles, can be similarly extrapolated to all higher levels of matter organization, including the planetary, solar, stellar, galactic, galactic clusters, super clusters and ultimately to the Universal scale, very likely explaining an enormous collection of cosmological and astrophysical data and phenomena.
2) Application to the behavior of the solar system has already been inferred as a means of explaining gravitation, including such mysteries as the sling shot effect, moon libration and gravity shadowing during solar eclipses. The maximum dimension of a bulk matter star is ultimately determined by the penetration capabilities of the ZPF, which must extend to its core with sufficient brevity to sustain all of its constituent positrons and negatrons within the nuclei. Furthermore, the orbital electron force fields of the individual atoms must withstand the extreme fluid pressures at the core without collapsing to form a neutron star.
3) Consequently, the maximum dimension of a condensed matter, neutron star is much smaller than a bulk matter star, since the ZPF attenuation rate would be roughly 104 times higher. The graviton emissions would however be largely independent of the density with a direct correlation to the number of fundamental material particles only. In other words, a large bulk matter star would produce approximately the same gravitational field (at distance) as a much smaller neutron star composed of the same number of fundamental particles with slight variations due to secondary shadowing effects.
4) Ultimately, the energy which powers a star comes from the absorption of a small fraction of the incident ZPF energy. Thermonuclear fusion, consequently, is not really the fundamental source. Effectively stars just recycle the energy of the vacuum, transducing it from the incident unobservable, ultra-high frequency scalar radiations to the emitted observable low frequency thermal radiations of the conventional EM spectrum. Sufficient interstellar spacing is therefore critical to the survival of a star.
5) Similarly, the maximum matter density and dimension of a galaxy would be determined by the ZPF distribution, which would eventually be organized and attenuated to such an extent that new stars could not be sustained from the local vacuum flux. This process of extrapolation to ever higher levels could apparently continue ad nauseam to the Universal scale, at which point we would have nothing further to inquire about. But that is not about to happen anytime soon.....
To fill in the many missing details and see the rest of the ~200 postulates, principles and rules please purchase the book.
© Mark Porringa, 2006, 2007
1/8 Section - Inside View